" Heroine cichlids are characterized by high morphological diversity, mainly in structures related to the capture and processing of food. The existence of ecomorphological groups has been proposed based on feeding behavior, where it is common for some phylogenetically unrelated species to show evolutionary convergence. Using geometric morphometrics and comparative phylogenetic methods, the variation in cranial morphology was evaluated for 17 species of heroine cichlids representing 5 ecomorphs. Cranial ecomorphs were recovered and significant differences were determined. Morphological variation of the ecomorphs was mainly explained by two axes: (1) the position of the mouth determined by the shape of the bones of the oral jaw and (2) the height of the head, defined by the size and position of the supraoccipital crest and the distance to the interopercle–subopercle junction. Cranial variation among species was related to phylogeny. To better understand the evolution of cranial morphology, it is necessary to evaluate the morphofunctional relationship of other anatomical structures related to feeding, as well as to increase the number of study species in each ecomorph by including other lineages "
Classification: Taxonomy and phylogeny.
Olvera‐Ríos, Yuriria Noemy & Alfonso A. González‐Díaz, Miriam Soria‐Barreto, María Mercedes Castillo‐Uscanga, Matteo Cazzanelli. 2023. "Comparative analysis of cranial morphology in Middle‐American heroine cichlids (Actinopterygii: Cichliformes)". Journal of Morphology. 284(e21571):1-12. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.21571 (ffm12209) (abstract)