Male from Etzatlán
Xenotoca melanosoma adult male from a creek between Etzatlán and San Marcos [Jalisco], in the Aquaculture laboratory (Acualab) of the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo in Morelia [Michoacán], in charge of Omar Domínguez Domínguez. Photo by Juan Miguel Artigas Azas. (06-Nov-2014). determiner Juan Miguel Artigas Azas





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Xenotoca melanosoma Fitzsimons, 1972

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Original description as Xenotoca melanosoma:


Conservation: Xenotoca melanosoma is evaluated by the international union for the conservation of nature in the iucn red list of threatened species as (EN) endangered (2018). Xenotoca melanosoma is threatened by chemical water pollution caused by agricultural activities (nutrients, herbicides, pesticides, sediments) and waste water discharge from towns and villages. This especially impacts larger river (ríos Ameca and Tamazula) and endorheic lagoons. Furthermore, heavy droughts caused by climate change and the silting up of habitats, mainly in the drainages of the lagoons west of the Chapala lake, lead to a decline in locations and the disappearance of this species from many areas. Introduction of Blue Tilapia and the occurrence of other non-native fish species (Xiphophorus helleri, Sunfish, Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus) has resulted in competition for food within these habitats, causing severe declines. In a few spring-fed ponds, recreational activities might cause also declines in stocks, especially when existing riparian vegetation is eradicated (Köck, 2019).

In 2008, it was estimated that the X. melanosoma had experienced a 75% reduction in its historical range (Domínguez Domínguez et al., 2008:505).