Original description as Characodon bilineatus:
- Bean, Tarleton Hoffman. 1887. "Descriptions of five new species of fishes sent by Prof. A. Dugès from the Province of Guanajuato, Mexico". Proceeding of the United States National Museum. 10(637):370-375 (ffm04505)
Conservation: Neotoca bilineata is evaluated by the international union for the conservation of nature in the iucn red list of threatened species as (EN) endangered (2018).